Abbreviated title
An essay on modern education (Intelligencer IX)
JSA Identification Number
Teerink/Scouten Number
27 (4b)
ESTC Number
Copy and its Location
CUL , Williams 160
Publisher and Printer
Miscellanies. The third volume, Vol. III, pp 206-221.
London, Motte, Benjamin Gilliver, Lawton Wright, John, 1732.


This version of Intelligencer IX appeared in the Swift-Pope Miscellanies in 1732. This number was first printed in Dublin by Sarah Harding as part of a series of papers published by Swift and his friend Thomas Sheridan. The ordering of the volumes of these miscellanies is confusing. The third volume published was called the ‘last’, and when Pope decided to publish a fourth volume they called it the ‘third’. This volume, like the others, was published in octavo and in duodecimo. The volume this text is printed from is a duodecimo and sometimes in other sets the title pages are changed so that this volume becomes the last.

The volume was printed by John Wright, whose business at this time was shaped by Pope. Pope does not, however, seem to have been very interested in the prose pieces in the Miscellanies, and I see no evidence of his hand in the Vindication. It is a characteristic Wright job, tidily and accurately done, in not especially good type, with use of printer’s ornaments.

The plan to produce volumes of miscellanies modelled on 1711 seems to have been hatched during Swift’s stay with Pope at Twickenham in the spring and summer of 1726. The basic plan had been for the first volume to reprint 1711, the second to focus on prose by Arbuthnot and Swift, and the third to contain verse by Swift and Pope. The third was called the ‘Final’ volume, but Pope then decided on a fourth one, unfortunately called the third. The volumes were to be published in London, by Motte, who had become Swift’s bookseller, and Pope, because he was on the spot (and liked doing that sort of thing) was to take charge of revising and editing. Tensions eventually arose because of Pope’s attitude to Swift’s poetry and Swift’s willingness to publish elsewhere; but surprisingly little evidence has emerged so far of Pope’s distorting the text of Swift’s work.

Benjamin Motte, Jr.’s father was a printer and a friend of Swift’s bookseller, Benjamin Tooke. He had intellectual interests, like his son, who was to publish an Abridgement of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Societ y. He died in 1710 and Motte took over the printing business from his mother when he came of age in 1715. He became a bookseller at the end of 1723 or the beginning of 1724, becoming a partner in the Tooke business. When Benjamin Tooke, Jr., died in May 1723, he left his bookselling business to his brother Samuel but a controlling interest to an older brother, Revd. Andrew Tooke, who was soon to become the censor of Gulliver’s Travels. Benjamin Motte joined Samuel Tooke in partnership shortly afterwards; perhaps he was helping out family friends, but it proved an expensive move. Samuel Tooke died in December 1724, leaving Motte in charge of the business, but when Andrew Tooke died in January 1732, Motte owed him £1,645. Motte’s financial problems with Gulliver’s Travels and the Miscellanies should be seen against this background. Motte gave up his Aldersgate printing house in 1726; in 1727 he bound Charles Bathurst as apprentice for the large sum of £80; he took Bathurst into partnership in 1734; he died intestate in April 1738; Bathurst carried on the business until he died in 1786. All my information on Motte comes from the innovative research of Michael Treadwell.

Lawton Gilliver (?1703-48)came from a wealthy family in Derbyshire. He set up in business in Fleet Street in 1728, and his sign, Homer’s Head, suggests he may have done so with Pope’s support. From the Dunciad Variorum in 1729 to Works II in 1735 he was Pope’s chosen bookseller and issued many of the important works of the second part of his career. He went bankrupt in 1742.

References: References: The Prose Writings of Jonathan Swift, ed. Herbert Davis and others, 16 vols. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1939-74), vol. xii, pp. 46-53, 328-9; Irvin Ehrenpreis, Swift: The Man, His Works, and the Age, 3 vols. (London: Methuen, 1962-83), vol. iii, pp. 582, 736-49; Michael Treadwell, ‘Benjamin Motte, Jr’, in Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 154, The British Literary Book Trade, 1700-1820, ed. James E. Bracken and Joel Silver (Detroit, MI: Gale, 1995); J. McLaverty, Pope’s Printer, John Wright: A Preliminary Study (Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1977) and ‘Lawton Gilliver: Pope’s Bookseller’, Studies in Bibliography, 32 (1979), 101-24.